Saturday, September 29, 2018

Mad About Coffee

It's National Coffee Day, and Alfred E. Neuman wanted to celebrate..., here's the cover to Mad Magazine #222 (April, 1981).

I'd have done more, but, I'm all out of coffee....

Thursday, September 27, 2018

Superman Meets The Joker

It's Batman's best friend vs. his worst enemy...Superman vs. the Joker!  To be fair, Superman and the Joker did fight before these two issues, but these were the Bronze Age tales that had Superman and the Joker going at it without Batman interfering!

Let's take a look back at the magical, pre-Crisis days, to when the Man of Steel fought the Clown Prince of Crime without the Darknight Detective!

DC Comics Presents 41

One of the best battles (and team-ups?) of Superman and the Joker happened in DC Comics Presents #41 (January, 1982) by Marty Pasko, Jose Luis Garcia-Lopez and Frank McLaughlin (with a cover by Ross Andru and Dick Giordano) with "The Terrible Tinseltown Treasure-Trap Treachery".

Joker breaks Superman's foe, the Prankster out of prison, with the idea the two of them will team-up to take the movie prop collection of deceased comedian Jerry Travis....while Superman calls Alfred to deal with this, as Batman is injured (and while Robin can't keep Batman from his Gotham patrols, Alfred did hide Joker's antics from him).  Problem is, Prankster also double crosses Joker and kidnaps Perry White in California, so Superman has to work with the Joker to save Perry!

Superman does, and realizes how insane the Joker really is (and of course, Batman learns of Alfred's deception as well, but never meets with Superman or the Joker in this issue).  

The title also premiered Wonder Woman's new stylized "W" breastplate!

DC Comics Presents 72

Where do you go from up?  You add a few characters (like Phantom Stranger) and give us DC Comics Presents #72 (August, 1984) by Paul Kupperberg, Alex Saviuk and Dennis Jensen (with a cover by Saviuk and Giordano), dealing with "Madness In A Dark Dimension".

Superman comes home to Metropolis to face a storm...which has an extradimensional origin, and is targeting him!  The Phantom Stranger explains that it is an old foe of his (Maaldor the Darklord) who had faced Superman twice before (once with Power Girl, once with Madame Xanadu), and that Superman will need help to stop this evil being who can now command the power of an alternate dimension.  That power was driving Maaldor mad, so who crazier than the Joker to help?

Superman and Joker head into Maaldor's dimension thanks to Phantom Stranger's help, and as the stresses of this dimension work on Superman's sanity, Joker begins to steal Maaldor's infinite power to save the Man of Steel by weakening Maaldor.  Joker does, though he eventually tries using the power against Superman, at least until the duo return to their home dimension, where Joker finds he couldn't keep the power.

This tale is unique in it is the first time Superman faces Joker without Batman (or another full-time JLAer).

In case you are wondering, Superman and Joker first met way back in World's Finest Comics #88 (May-June, 1957), fighting with Batman and Luthor (who had a few more battles together).

Joker even teamed up with Bizarro as well for one issue!

Later, in a run of Superman comics in 2000, Superman and the whole DC Universe had to deal with a Joker with infinite powers, as ran through Superman #160/161, Adventures of Superman #582/583, Superman: The Man of Steel #104/105, Action Comics #769/770 and the one-shot Superman: Emperor Joker #1, all collected in a tradepaperback in 2007 and 2016. but it was the freewheeling Bronze Age days that helped inspire these tales!

Wednesday, September 26, 2018

The Secrets Of Superman Island

John Donne once stated in a poem that "No Man Is An Island"....but, to be honest, he didn't likely meet Superman.

Superman did indeed have an island, which he and others visited twice, and here are those stories.

The Secret Of Superman Island

It was Superman who created Superman Island in Action Comics #224 (January, 1957) by Ed Hamilton, Wayne Boring and Stan Kaye, all under a cover by Al Plastino....but no one knew why, and Superman wouldn't let anyone land there to find out.

Lois Lane, always curious, looked into this, and found Professor Vanley.  To verify her theory, Lois hires some men to take her to the island, but, they were Guy Blisher and Norton Larch were criminals, and wanted to break into a vault on the island, having injured Vanley before they went.  Lois tells Superman of the criminals and what happen to Vanley, and Superman leaves the crooks, takes Lois off the island to check on the professor.  Professor Vanley was fine, but he explains to Lois that he had thought he had found a way to get energy from Green Kryptonite (but he was wrong), and Superman stored all the Kryptonite he had gathered here to keep criminals from using it against him.  After the police take the criminals away in helicopters, Superman throws the island (and its store of Kryptonite) into space. 

Years after this, an experiment turns all Kryptonite on Earth into lead (see Superman #233 of January, 1971), a story which has been reprinted many times, including in Superman in the Seventies and in the Millennium Edition: Superman 233, but Action Comics #485 of July, 1978 has a few extra pages, as well as a new cover by Neal Adams.

The Return Of Superman Island

Superman Island is found again in Action Comics #513 (November, 1980) by Marv Wolfman, Curt Swan and Frank Chiaramonte (well, they related the story of it being found again, all under a cover by Ross Andru and Dick Giordano).

S.T.A.R. Labs had observed that Superman Island was returning, as reported by Bill Logan and Lana Lang of WGBS.  Lois checked with the prison warden, finding out that Blisher and Larch had been recently released, and were living in Suicide Slum.  At a local bar, Blisher and Larch were bragging about knowing about Superman Island, which got them captured by H.I.V.E. agents (Hierarchy of International Vengeance and Extermination), who learned of the Kryptonite in the island, and killed the two criminals.  Superman, having finished a volcanic emergency, went to stop a H.I.V.E. missile from breaking the orbiting island open, but failed, being hit by a shower of Kryptonite.  A H.I.V.E. ship picked up the Kryptonite, as well as Lois Lane, as Superman was fished out of the ocean by a tractor beam from Superman Island.  Superman was cured of his Kryptonite poisoning by the Krell, an alien race who lost their own world, and settled on Superman Island, using the Kryptonite as a power source. 

They provided Superman a temporary shield against Kryptonite, allowing him to attack the H.I.V.E. base and free Lois, but he was unable to find the Kryptonite. 

Superman then threw Superman Island (with the Krell) towards a planet they could inhabit, where they wouldn't need a Kryptonite power source.

The H.I.V.E. would return, tricking Deathstroke the Terminator to attack the Teen Titans after a recent reformation, as well as menacing Superman and the reporters of the Daily Planet again.

Thursday, September 20, 2018

Flash Facts: The Early Days of The Trickster

James Jesse was from a family of circus folk, specializing in high wire acrobatics.  Not a bad thing, except James was afraid of heights.  Still, this led him to invent a special pair of shoes that allowed him to walk on air.

Armed with those, as well as a few other gimmicky items, James Jesse took to a life of crime as the Trickster (inspired by the fact his name was the same, but reversed of a famous thief from the old West, Jesse James).  Still, would walking on air be enough to allow him to beat the Flash?

Danger In The Air

Flash #113 (June-July, 1960) premieres the Trickster, in a story by John Broome, Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella, under this incredible cover by Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella.

The Trickster performs some incredible robberies, including stealing from an airplane during a flight.  He issues a challenge to the Flash, and escapes him by running on air!

The story relates the history of James Jesse, and Flash, guessing the Trickster may have some circus blood in him, follows that hunch, checking out a local circus in town, where he happens to catch James Jesse practicing his high wire act.  Flash also finds the Trickster's outfit in Jesse's trailer, so, captures the crook, turning him over to the police.

This story made it into Flash Archives, Omnibusi, and Silver Age collections.... well as in Flash #160 (April, 1966), the Countdown Special: The Flash #1 (December, 2007), the Greatest Flash Stories Ever Told and the Flash Vs. the Rogues tradepaperback.

The Trickster Strikes Back

Is the Trickster Flash's father?  Not a revelation seen in Flash #121 (June, 1961) by John Broome, Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella, with a very similar cover to his first appearance, also by Infantino and Giella.

Trickster breaks out of jail, with a new plan for crimes in Central City, to steal from crooks as Flash catches them.  This works for a while, with Flash unable to catch his tricky foe, until he tracks the villain down to his warehouse hideaway.  Even then, Flash first finds a dummy made to look like the Trickster, which explodes! 

Flash outruns the explosion, doubling back in time to catch the Trickster and return him to prison.

This Trickster tale has been reprinted a few times, like in Wanted, The World's Most Dangerous Villains #2 (September-October, 1972), the third Flash Archive, the first Flash Omnibus and in Flash: The Silver Age Volume 2 tradepaperback.

Double Danger On Earth

A slightly different cover by Carmine Infantino and Murphy Anderson for Flash #129 (June, 1962), with the Trickster coming back again, this time, teaming up with Captain Cold to face two Flashes in this story by Gardner Fox, Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella.

Jay Garrick, the Flash of Earth-2, comes to Earth-1 looking for a meteorite in Arizona that was causing a deadly radiation killing everyone on his home Earth, and goes looking for Earth-1's Flash (Barry Allen) for help.  Barry is at a party, that is being burgled by Captain Cold and the Trickster, who first are working alone, but then decide to team up and try to take off with the cash from the party.  The two Flashes go to find the meteorite, then stop the villainous pair, with Jay going back to his world with the meteorite cure.

This story was reprinted in Flash #178 (April-May, 1968), the first Crisis On Multiple Earths The Team Ups tradepaperback of 2006, in the Flash of Two Worlds hardcover of 2009, as well as  being one of many tales in the first Flash Omnibus.

Who Doomed The Flash?

Carmine Infantino and Muprhy Anderson give us this fatal looking cover for Flash #130 (August, 1962)  by John Broome, Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella, with the Trickster as one of many villains menacing the Flash.

To be honest, James Jesse was barely in this issue.  Flash seems to see many of his captured foes out on the loose and checks the prison near Central City, with James being one of the inmates there.  It was the Mirror Master, controlling the mind of attorney Paul Barrett that makes it seem like Flash's foes are out on the loose.   Flash, stops the plan, and Trickster's appearance here is only a slight one.  Still, this is an important issue, establishing that Flash's foes know each other, and later, when a Rogue's Gallery forms, Trickster will be represented.

This issue was reprinted in DC Special #8 (July-September, 1970), the fourth Flash Archive, DC Comics Presents: The Flash of 2011, the very heavy first Flash Omnibus, and the second volume of Flash: The Silver Age tradepaperback.

Perilous Pursuit Of The Trickster

Inker Murphy Anderson must have wanted a try at a classic Carmine Infantino Trickster cover, and got the chance with Flash #142 (February, 1964) with story by Gardner Fox, Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella.

This time around, Trickster steals from a child....a toy detective set that he then uses in his next crimes.  When Flash arrives to stop him from taking the money, the Trickster makes Flash look foolish, which so delights the Trickster, that he leaves the money behind, taking joy in embarrassing the Flash.  Flash next confronts the Trickster while the villain is stealing a diamond, but Flash was ready this time.  He had positioned a wire into the air previously, and uses it to reach the Trickster in the air, then handcuffs the Trickster using the handcuffs from the toy detective kit.

This story was reprinted in the sixth Flash Archive, as well as in the second Flash Omnibus and in the third Flash: The Silver Age tradepaperback with a wealth of other classic speedster stories of the Flash.


The Trickster's Toy Thefts

Flash #152 (May, 1965) features a Trickster story by Gardner Fox, Carmine Infantino and Murphy Anderson, with Infantino and Anderson doing yet another slight variation on the classic Trickster cover pose.

Trickster starts his crime spree by stealing a hobby horse that Iris West was giving to her niece, Inez.  Flying off on the horse, Flash chases after him as Trickster uses it to rob a dirigible, but has to let the thief go to save the passengers of the vehicle who were in danger.  Trickster has two more toys he tries to use against the Flash....a surfboard and a tricycle.  Flash again saves innocent people while Trickster uses the surfboard in a crime, but, is able to counter the tricks of the tricycle, capturing the Trickster!

Flash reprints of this tale only come in black and white in the Showcase Presents: The Flash Volume 3, and in the second Flash Omnibus (but at least that's in color).

The Swell-Headed Super-Hero

The Trickster didn't make the cover of his next appearance (as drawn by Ross Andru and Mike Esposito) in Flash #177 (March, 1968), but gave the Flash a swelled head in a story by Gardner Fox, Ross Andru and Mike Esposito.

Barry Allen uses his detective skills to solve a locked room mystery, and brags about it quite a bit.  Then, when he switches to the Flash, his head really begins to swell...all thanks to the Trickster.  The Trickster exposed Flash to weapon that causes Flash's head to expand (giving Flash headaches that slow down his use of his power), giving Trickster a chance to try to pop Flash's head.  Knocking Flash unconscious, Trickster brings him back to his headquarters, where Flash finds the bird that Trickster originally experimented on (and cured with a dose of special radiation).  Enough residual radiation remained on the bird to decrease Barry's headache, allowing him stop the Trickster, then further analyze the bird, to enable him to cure his condition.

This tale is the front cover for the fourth Showcase Presents: The Flash (which reprints the story in black and white), and in the third Flash Omnibus, which does present this tale in a color reprint for your enjoyment!

Switching Foes

Trickster appeared in a few more Flash issues, meeting villains like Captain Boomerang, Gorilla Grodd, the Top and Pied Piper, joining both the Flash's Rogue's Gallery, as well as the Secret Society of Super-Villains, then went of to fight Black Lightning and Blue Devil as well....getting to switch sides working with Blue Devil, almost become a hero over time, fighting the villain Bolt....quite the trick for the Trickster!

Wednesday, September 19, 2018

Happy Talk Like A Pirate Day

Celebrating Talk Like A Pirate Day with this look back at Aquaman's return to Adventure Comics (this time as the main feature), with his battle against Captain Demo and his pirates, as they planned to plunder Atlantis in "The Pirate Who Plundered Atlantis" by Paul Levitz, David Michelinie and Jim Aparo, with a cover by Jim Aparo in #441 of September, 1975.

While a bit of a slow start, this started an important run of issues in Aquaman's life, ending with #452....and the revival of Aquaman's own title (starting Aquaman #57) the next month, facing off against Black Manta (and Aqualad staying in Adventure Comics for the next three issues as a back-up feature for Superboy).

Thursday, September 13, 2018

Detective Comics Centennial 100 and 200

Starting a celebration of every 100 issues of Detective Comics, where Batman began back in May, 1939.

This time, looking back at his first and second 100 issues, with Detective Comics #100 and #200.

Detective Comics 100

The first of these special issues was Detective Comics #100 (June, 1945) with a cover by Dick Sprang.

This issue features the main story of "The Crow's Net Mystery", by Don Cameron, Jack Burnley and Charles Paris, where Batman and Robin raid a fence's hideout to find two smugglers, one of whom shoots the other to escape.  Trailing the murderer to the Crow's Nest, the Dynamic Duo encounter mystery writer Reginald Scofield lives.  Batman deduces that this is where the smugglers operated from, and finds Scofield's butler to be their leader, which all gives Scofield a new idea for a story!

Other features in this issue include Air Wave, Three-Ring Binks, Slam Bradley and the Boy Commandos!

Detective Comics 200

J. Winslow Mortimer was the artist who rode the radio waves to give readers the cover of Detective Comics #200 (October, 1953).

Here, Batman and Robin had the Batmobile tuned to "Radio Station C-R-I-M-E" in a story that had no identified writer, but with art by Sheldon Moldoff and Charles Paris.  This time around, criminals in Gotham were being aided by a radio station that broadcasted the locations of the police, allowing them to commit crimes.  The Dynamic Duo tracked down the mobile radio station after an attempted plane hijacking and parking structure hideout, finding the leader, who got the information by lip reading conversations at the Gotham City Police Department.

The other features in this issue included Roy Raymond TV Detective, the original Robotman and Pow-Wow Smith. 

Both Detective Comics stories featured the Batman and Robin of Earth-2 (basically, the Batman who was a member of the Justice Society of America, instead of the Justice League of America, with a grown up Robin joining the JSA much later, having never appeared in All-Star Comics during the original 57 issue run).

You'll notice that these issues don't quite come out at the same time as Superman's Action Comics #100 and #200, and the rates of growth and their variations between Action and Detective are covered here!

Come back as the countdown to Detective Comics #1000 continues...

Wednesday, September 12, 2018

Batman And Robin At The New York World's Fair

Here is an odd comic book, a promotional item that was distributed at the New York's World Fair....the second issue of New York World's Fair Comics #2 of July, 1940, with Superman, Batman and Robin enjoying the Trylon and Perisphere structure at this event, as shown on the cover drawn by Jack Burnley.

But, this issue is very significant for Batman's history and the whole of the DC Universe as well!

Batman And Robin Visit The 1940 New York World's Fair

Seems Gotham City must be pretty close to New York City, as Bruce Wayne and Dick Grayson did visit the second New York World's Fair in 1940 in a story by Bill Finger and Bob Kane, where the Dynamic Duo face off against an evil scientist, Dr. Hugo Vreekill, who invented a device which melts steel.  Batman and Robin go into action, and stop the scientist, who decides to electrocutes himself rather than end up in prison.

This issue also features separate stories of Superman, Slam Bradley, Zatara, Hourman, Sandman, Johnny Thunder and more, who also attend the fair, though none of these heroes seem to meet each other....but, this cover is the first time Superman and Batman share the spotlight!

Previous Stories

It's worth a mention that the second issue wasn't really labelled as a second issue, but that there was a previous issue of New York World's Fair Comics that was tied to the 1939 World's Fair, coming out in April of 1939, including stories of Superman, Scoop Scanlon, Slam Bradley, Sandman, Zatara and more, even if Superman was miscolored on the cover.

But, where was Batman?

Well, he was just premiering in Detective Comics #27 (May, 1939) by Bill Finger and Bob Kane.

After The Fair

These issues proved so popular, that DC Comics continued the idea with World's Best Comics #1 (Spring, 1941), with a cover by Fred Ray, with individual stories of Superman, Batman, and other characters like the Crimson Avenger, Johnny Thunder, the King and more.  This title turned into World's Finest Comics with its second issue in Summer of 1941, and eventually became a title that featured team-ups of Superman and Batman, after the two characters had a few first meetings!

Even better, Roy Thomas, always keeping an eye on history, used the Trylon and Perisphere as the headquarters for his massive team of Golden Age heroes, the All-Star Squadron (including an issue where Batman faced off against Oom of Mr. Mind's Monster Society of Evil).

Thursday, September 6, 2018

Flash DC Super Stars

Flash was one of the DC characters that did hold onto his own title even through the 1970s, so it probably wasn't a bad idea to try to tap into his rich history and give him an issue of DC Super Stars, so DC did with DC Super Stars #5 (July, 1975), which had this great cover by Dick Giordano (and the 33 of a special month where DC was saluting the Bicentennial), even though history might make you feel old, or even like you are approacing death....reflecting the 3 tales reprinted in....or, sort of.

Don't speed through the summaries, as how one of these reprints wasn't really a reprint....

Flash 157

First, we start with the reprint of the cover story from Flash #157 (December, 1965) by John Broome, Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella (and cover by Carmine Infantino and Murphy Anderson), with "The Day The Flash Aged 100 Years".

This story deal with Barry Allen dealing with the Top, one of his Rogue's Gallery solo (in between the first two appearances of the Rogue's Gallery's appearances), with the villain sending the Flash spinning by trying to steal an experimental anti-aging serum.  When the Top tries the formula on the Flash, the Flash appears to age at super speed!  This was a set up by the Flash, so the Top would leave him alone, and the Flash could follow the Top to his headquarters, but Flash couldn't find the formula there.  So, Flash tries again, this time pretending to be a hyper-evolved man with fantastic powers, gotten from a combination of the formula and one of the Top's super speed spinning gimmicks.  Top escapes the Flash, to get the vial, and gain those "powers".....but, the Flash followed him at super speed, and was able to recover the formula.

Flash 118 

Next up is a tale of young Wally West as Kid Flash, with the back up tale from Flash #118 (February, 1961) by John Broome, Carmine Infantino and Joe Giella, where Kid Flash faces "The Midnight Peril".

Wally was taking a fraternity initiation test with his pal Pete Willard, staying in a haunted house until midnight.  Pete and Wally talk about Kid Flash, with Pete telling Wally he doesn't really believe in Kid Flash.  Then, the boys are approached by "ghosts" (two men in white sheets) who chase the boys away.  Wally changes into Kid Flash (who had a smaller version of Barry's costume at this time), who uses his super speed to chase the two men (who were using the house for crime) to the police station.  Then, heading back, Kid Flash saves Pete from a rockslide, earning his respect.  Wally beats Pete back to the house and switches back to Wally, in time enough for the pair to finish their initiation into the fraternity.

All-Flash 22

Now the story of "Deal Me From The Bottom" originally appeared in All-Flash #22 (April-May, 1946) by John Broome and Martin Naydel, with Jay Garrick, the Golden Age Flash facing off against Deuces Wilde, a gambler who used a young boy who had an ability to pitch playing cards, and that was a rough deal for the Flash.

It was also a rough deal for original artist Martin Naydel, as they had the story redrawn by Rico Rival, giving the feel of a newer story, from a Golden Age one!

The issue also had a page from Strange Adventures that detailed the speed of light, as well as a text piece, that related a little history of DC's speedsters, including the Flashes -Jay, Barry and Wally - as well as the Reverse-Flash, and both Johnny Quicks (the one from Earth-2 and the other from Earth-3), but... can follow the links to find info on them, and enjoy this art by Carmine Infantino of the 3 Flashes instead!

Wednesday, September 5, 2018

Giant Justice League of America The Fifth

Giants were getting to be a little less so, with the fifth Justice League of America Giant, Justice League of America #76 (November-December, 1969, also listed as Giant #G-65) clocking in at about 64 pages....

...still, it did have that incredible Murphy Anderson cover, as well as two tales of the Justice League of America, as well as a couple of extras that made this a real special issue.

Justice League of America 7

The first of the reprints was from Justice League of America #7 (October-November, 1961), where the original JLA members (plus Green Arrow) entered "The Cosmic Fun-House" in a story by Gardner Fox, Mike Sekowsky and Bernard Sachs, under an original cover by Mike Sekowsky and Murphy Anderson.

This time around, aliens from the planet Angellax had taken over a fun house (coincidentally the one Snapper Carr had taken his girlfriend, Midge, to), transporting the couple to an alien world (which they were rescued from by the JLA).  Still, Wonder Woman, Flash, Green Lantern and Green Arrow went to check it out in their alter egos, whom the aliens then duplicate (and the duplicates send Superman, Batman and Martian Manhunter into the far future seeking Xotar to keep them busy).  Then, the aliens (also in disguise) lure Aquaman to the park.  The captured JLAers escape, but are distorted by the attempt (like a fun house mirror), and have to work harder to defeat their foes, return to normal and call Superman, Batman and the Martian Manhunter back from the future. 

Once all that is accomplished, the heroes come back to the park in their alter egos, with their appropriate paramours (Lois Lane, Kathy Kane, Steve Trevor, Diane Meade, Iris West, Carol Ferris and Bonnie King, with poor Aquaman left out at the time), to enjoy the rides!

Justice League of America 12

The second reprint was from Justice League of America #12 (June, 1962) featuring "The Last Case Of The Justice League" by Gardner Fox, Mike Sekowsky and Bernard Sachs (and cover by Murphy Anderson).  Laying on a bit thick with that title (especially considering a few issues came out after the original story....but, read on.....).

This issue starts with a new villain, Doctor Light, confronting a late to a meeting Snapper Carr, alone in the JLA the villain asks Snapper to record his history of the last case of the Justice League.  Arthur Light was a scientist who figured out how to manipulate light, and using that and other methods, first captured Aquaman, then using his signaling device, attracted the other JLAers, sending them to other worlds that would negate the Leaguers powers.  But, Superman and Batman, the last to arrive, figured out that something bad was afoot, and used their tried and true method of switching identities, which allowed Superman to leave Batman's planet trap, and eventually rescue all his teammates (with a little help to get the Batman dressed as Superman).  The team find Snapper at the Secret Sanctuary, then go off chasing Dr. Light at three different locations....capturing him, and finding out all three were light duplicates designed to distract the JLA, except one JLAer had planned a distraction of his own, which allowed the team to defeat the Doctor.


There were two special pin-ups in this issue, harking back to the Golden Age of DC Comics, with both of them being rendered by Murphy Anderson.

The first was a two page spread of the Justice Society of America, with its membership as it was at the time this issue came out including Batman, Superman, Wonder Woman and well as an extra half a page with a little of the JSA's history.

The second pin-up was that of the Seven Soldiers of Victory, who were the leaders of 14 issues of Leading Comics, and this team had not been seen in decades, with a few of the members not even active in current comics! 

This was a first step to bringing them back....

...that, and more Giant coverage coming in the future!